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Managing Pregnancy Low Back Pain

Low Back Pain (LBP) is the #1 most common discomfort during pregnancy. In fact, close to 70% of people develop LBP at some point during pregnancy (Wang et al., 2004). It’s so common that it may seem inevitable. However, by understanding its causes, you will be better positioned to adjust certain habits in order to minimize its effects (or perhaps avoid it altogether).

Why is LBP so common during pregnancy?

There are several factors that can lead to various degrees of LBP during pregnancy. Here are some of the key ones:

  • Alignment Changes: One of the biggest causes of LBP is the alignment shift created from your growing belly tipping your pelvis downward, pulling your lower back into an excessive arch (as in the image below). This position compresses the tissues in the lower back, making them tight and uncomfortable.

  • Shift in Center of Gravity: The other “fun” side effect of your growing belly is that it actually shifts your center of gravity (which is normally about 2″ below your navel) up and out. When this happens, the muscles in the back of your body have to work harder to prevent you from falling forward. So, they are in constant tension. In addition, the extra weight in front often leads people to compensate by leaning backward to better balance themselves (like the image below), which can further accentuate the pressure on the lower back.

  • Hormonal Changes: Relaxin is a hormone that increases throughout pregnancy.  As its name indicates, it’s responsible for a softening of all the soft tissues in the body. The purpose is to allow the pelvis to widen to adapt to the growing baby and to facilitate an easier labor. However, the down side of this pelvic loosening is that it decreases stability in the pelvic region, making it more difficult to resist the shift in center of gravity.

  • Fatigue/Exhaustion: This can lead to longer periods of sitting — and slouching — which places added pressure on the low back.

How to Manage Lower Back Pain

Despite seeming inevitable, there are many proactive steps you can take to minimize your chances of experiencing with LBP, or perhaps prevent it altogether.

  • Find Neutral Alignment: This is the most important. When your body is in neutral alignment, this will alleviate the stress from your low back. Watch this video to learn how to find, and move in, neutral alignment.

  • Strengthen Your Deep Core Muscles: The deep core muscles and glutes help to stabilize the spine and pelvis. Strong core and glute muscles can help resist the alignment shifts that pull the lower back into the excessive arch. Begin by mastering what we call the #1 most effective core exercise: 360° Breathing.

  • Mobilize “Stuck” Tissues: Gentle mobility work can be very helpful in alleviating tension in the lower back. Try these 5 Stretches to Relieve Low Back Pain.
  • Avoid Provocative Positions: This one is obvious but worth mentioning. If something hurts, don’t do it. Even if you think you should fight through discomfort for the long-term benefit of doing certain activities, don’t. For example, while the standard Bent Over Row is a great exercise, it does ask a lot of your low back. To take some pressure off your low back, opt for a Single Arm Supported Row instead.
  • Change Your Loads: Lowering the amount of weight you are using during strength training is one great strategy to make your back do less work. Another way is to lower the position of the load. One example would be to hold the weights down by your sides when squatting, as opposed to holding them in a rack position (in front of your chest). As a rule of thumb, the higher you lift a weight above you, the more your core (read: low back) has to work. So keep the weight down for a happier back.
  • Consider acupuncture or massage: If pain is severe, these can provide temporary relief. Just ensure the professional you go to is certified to work with pregnant clients.
  • Keep Moving: Long periods of sitting put pressure on the low back. While exercise certainly helps, simply moving more throughout your day helps. For some inspiration, see this list of ideas on how to sneak more movement into your day (at home, at work, and while out and about).

Want More Help?

For effective prenatal workouts that will help you build strength and alleviate common pregnancy pains like LBP, explore our prenatal training programs. Or, for a more personalized approach, work with one of our PROnatal Personal Trainers

Interested in Coaching Pre & Postnatal Clients?

Are you a fitness or health professional interested in working with pre & postnatal clients? Explore our Pre/Postnatal Professional EducationWe offer a Specialist Course for trainers & coaches looking to specialize in this population and a Mini Course for group fitness instructors who just need the basics. We also offer simple training guides to get you started.

Sources:

Wang, S., Dezinno, P., Maranets, I. Berman, M.R., Caldwell-Andrews, A.A., Kain, Z.N. (2004). Low Back Pain During Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 104(1), 65-70.